Scaffolding helps to build a framework for the learners What is Instructional Design? In addition, it may be thought of as a framework for developing modules or lessons that Merrill, Drake, Lacy, Pratt, The list at the bottom of the page links to several types of instructional design processes. Cognitive Task Analysis is even more specific — it is used to analyze tasks that are largely covert and nonprocedural in nature.
In the theory proposed by Andreas Demetriouwith his colleagues, all of these factors are systematically studied. The first is the level of processing potentials which involves information processing mechanisms underlying the ability to attend to, select, represent, and operate on information.
The other two of levels involve knowing processes, one oriented to the environment and another oriented to the self. The general model of the architecture of the developing mind integrating concepts from the theories of Demetriou and Case.
Processing potentials[ edit ] Mental functioning at any moment occurs under the constraints of the processing potentials that are available at a given age. Processing potentials are specified in terms of three dimensions: Speed of processing refers to the maximum speed at which a given mental act may be efficiently executed.
It is measured in reference to the reaction time to very simple tasks, such as the time needed to recognize an object. Control of processing involves executive functions that enable the person to keep the mind focused on a goal, protect attention of being captured by irrelevant stimuli, timely shift focus to other relevant information if required, and inhibit irrelevant or premature responses, so that a strategic plan of action can be made and sustained.
Reaction time to situations where one must choose between two or more alternatives is one measure of control of processing. Stroop effect tasks are good measures of control of processing. Representational capacity refers to the various aspects of mental power or working memory mentioned above. Six such environment-oriented systems are described: Forming hierarchies of interrelated concepts about class relationships is an example of the domain of this system.
For instance, the general class of plants includes the classes of fruits and vegetables, which, in turn, include the classes of apples and lettuce, etc.
The quantitative system deals with quantitative variations and relations in the environment. Mathematical concepts and operations are examples of the domain of this system.
The causal system deals with cause-effect relations. Operations such as trial-and-error or isolation of variable strategies that enable a person to decipher the causal relations between things or persons and ensuing causal concepts and attributions belong to this system.
The spatial system deals with orientation in space and the imaginal representation of the environment.
Our mental maps of our city or the mental images of familiar persons and objects and operations on them, such as mental rotation, belong to this system. Different types of logical relationships, such as implication if The social system deals with the understanding of social relationships and interactions.Development Theories John Harriss Abstract Development theories are about understanding how the processes of change in societies take place.
Scholars from historically less developed parts of Europe, and from the colonial world.
Theories of Development. Development is the series of age-related changes that happen over the course of a life span. Several famous psychologists, including Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget, and Lawrence Kohlberg, describe development as a series of stages.A stage is a period in development in which people exhibit typical behavior patterns and establish particular capacities.
I am spending these two weeks co-teaching the Summer Institute of Civic Studies. We will cover 18 separate topics, and I will blog about roughly half of them. Yesterday afternoon’s discussion focused on children and youth, civic education, and human development, more generally.
We had assigned the. Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved.
Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches. In this article, multiple theories are discussed, as are recent developments with regard to these theories.
Dr. C. George Boeree Professor Emeritus Psychology Department Shippensburg University All chapters available in Spanish, German, and Bulgarian, as well as in English: Personality Theories - the book (available from Amazon).