Phd thesis on medicinal plants

Giam d[ef]p, Giam l[as] nh[or]. Gen info Genus name Mitragyna was given by the Dutch botanist Korthais because the leaves and stigmas of the flowers resemble the shape of the bishop's mitre. Leaves are elliptic, 8. Petioles are 2 to 4 centimeters long.

Phd thesis on medicinal plants

Phytochemistry of medicinal plants thesis proposal

Coca tea Although coca leaf chewing is common only among the indigenous populations, [33] the consumption of coca tea Mate de coca is common among all sectors of society in the Andean countries, especially due to their high elevations from sea level, [33] and is widely held to be beneficial to health, mood, and energy.

Commercial and industrial uses[ edit ] In the Andes commercially manufactured coca teas, granola bars, cookies, hard candies, etc. A decocainized extract of coca leaf is one of the flavoring ingredients in Coca-Cola.

Before the criminalization of cocaine, however, the extract was not decocainized. Therefore, Coca-Cola's original formula did include cocaine. National Company of the Coca a government enterprise in Peru. The presidents of these three countries have personally identified with this movement.

In particular, Evo Morales of Bolivia elected in December was a coca grower's union leader. During his speech to the General Assembly of the United Nations on September 19,he held a coca leaf in his hand to demonstrate its innocuity.

A Peruvian-based company has announced plans to market a modern version of Vin Marianiwhich will be available in both natural and de-cocainized varieties.

The drink was never sold widely in Colombia and efforts to do so ended in May when it was abruptly banned by the Colombian government. International prohibition of coca leaf[ edit ] Coca leaf is the raw material for the manufacture of the drug cocaine, a powerful stimulant and anaesthetic extracted chemically from large quantities of coca leaves.

Today, since it has mostly been replaced as a medical anaesthetic by synthetic analogues such as procainecocaine is best known as an illegal recreational drug. The cultivation, sale, and possession of unprocessed coca leaf but not of any processed form of cocaine is generally legal in the countries — such as Bolivia, Peru, Chile, and Argentina — where traditional use is established, although cultivation is often restricted in an attempt to control the production of cocaine.

In the case of Argentina, it is legal only in some northern provinces where the practice is so common that the state has accepted it. The prohibition of the use of the coca leaf except for medical or scientific purposes was established by the United Nations in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.

The coca leaf is listed on Schedule I of the Single Convention together with cocaine and heroin. The Convention determined that "The Parties shall so far as possible enforce the uprooting of all coca bushes which grow wild.

They shall destroy the coca bushes if illegally cultivated" Article 26and that, "Coca leaf chewing must be abolished within twenty-five years from the coming into force of this Convention" Article 49, 2.

It was requested of the United Nations by the permanent representative of Peru, and was prepared by a commission that visited Bolivia and Peru briefly in to "investigate the effects of chewing the coca leaf and the possibilities of limiting its production and controlling its distribution.

Questions have been raised as to whether a similar study today would pass the scrutiny and critical review to which scientific studies are routinely subjected. Coca consumers claim that most of the information provided about the traditional use of the coca leaf and its modern adaptations are erroneous.

Bolivia stated that "the coca leaf is not, in and of itself, a narcotic drug or psychotropic substance" and stressed that its "legal system recognizes the ancestral nature of the licit use of the coca leaf, which, for much of Bolivia's population, dates back over centuries.

A single objection would have been sufficient to block the modification. The legally unnecessary step of supporting the change was taken formally by Spain, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Costa Rica.

The effort to enforce these provisions, referred to as coca eradicationhas involved many strategies, ranging from aerial spraying of herbicides on coca crops to assistance and incentives to encourage farmers to grow alternative crops. As per the proclaimed view, this not only contributes to the major social problem of drug abuse but also financially supports insurgent groups that collaborate with drug traffickers in some cocaine-producing territories.

Critics of the effort claim [33] that it creates hardship primarily for the coca growers, many of whom are poor and have no viable alternative way to make a living, causes environmental problems, that it is not effective in reducing the supply of cocaine, in part because cultivation can move to other areas, and that any social harm created by drug abuse is only made worse by the War on Drugs.

In South America coca leaf is illegal in both Paraguay and Brazil.

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Netherlands[ edit ] In the Netherlands, coca leaf is legally in the same category as cocaine, both are List I drugs of the Opium Law. The Opium Law specifically mentions the leaves of the plants of the genus Erythroxylon.

However, the possession of living plants of the genus Erythroxylon is not actively prosecuted, even though they are legally forbidden. The company manufactures pure cocaine for medical use and also produces a cocaine-free extract of the coca leaf, which is used as a flavoring ingredient in Coca-Cola.

Analysts have noted the substantial importation of coca leaf into the USA. Specifically, it lists Coca Erythroxylonits preparations, derivatives, alkaloids, and salts, including: Possession of a Schedule I substance is illegal and trafficking can result in punishment of up to life imprisonment.Carolus Linnaeus, the Swedish systematist, led an adventurous life, and his intellectual legacy continues to sway the thought of biologists even today.

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Phd thesis on medicinal plants

Our in-depth research began in and is a continuing effort! Sakina Bounaga, PhD Partner European Patent Attorney.

Phd thesis on medicinal plants

Sakina Bounaga holds a PhD in Bioorganic Chemistry from the University of Huddersfield, UK. She has a Master of Advanced Studies in Chemistry of Biomolecules from the University of Montpellier, France, and holds a Master in Plant Chemistry and Biology from the University of Perpignan, France.

ASSISTED COLONIZATION is the intentional movement and release of an organism outside its indigenous range to avoid extinction of populations of the focal species.. ECOLOGICAL REPLACEMENT is the intentional movement and release of an organism outside its indigenous range to perform a specific ecological function..

See the 3-fold chart immediately below for distinctions between three forms of. iv Abstract The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the potential of two Malian medicinal plants and one Chinese cultivated medicinal plant in .

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