It is invoked to explain war-making in foreign lands, the creation of government departments such as Homeland Security, and the expansion of federal surveillance powers, both at home and abroad. In the past decade, it has also drawn special attention to the presence of Muslims in the United States.
The stakes are high. Even so, adoption of social media is slow and uneven, with vast differences both between and within states. As more and more governments move towards e-government, their use of social media will grow. Social media has had significant impacts on governments around the world, forcing them to respond, adapt and rethink governance in a digital age.
There are numerous ways -- positive and negative -- in which governments are utilizing social media, including: Opening Up Democratic Processes When its utmost potential is reached, social media is democracy at work. It lowers the barriers of entry for citizens to engage with, provide feedback on, and participate in government initiatives.
Whereas politicians and government officials once had to travel to interact with citizens, now online town halls strengthen the connections between them, while providing a platform for direct input on government initiatives.
Social media allows citizens to be the source of ideas, plans and initiatives in an easier way than ever before. We the Peoplean online petition system started by President Barak Obama, is just one example; anyone can start a petition, and any petition with overonline signatures requires a response from the federal government.
Meanwhile, inthe City Council of Melbourne used a Wiki-based platform to create the Future Melbourne Community Plan website, drawing over 40, page views. In Iceland used social media to crowd-source feedback for its new constitution. The Iceland case study illustrates both the opportunities and challenges created by social media for government, as the constitution was not ultimately passed into law, showing that the use of social media as a democratic process is still experimental.
Public Service Delivery Social media has played a key role in the accelerating shift towards "e-government", the use of the internet to deliver government information and services.
E-government goes beyond social media alone, but social media has become a means by which public services are delivered.
At the city level, Vancouver uses Twitter to notify residents of trash pick-up schedules. Beyond these alert-based services, cities such as San Francisco, Pittsburgh and New York have all developed online systems that allow citizens to provide reports and request services via Facebook and Twitter.
This application of social media is novel to government and citizens alike. While progress so far is laudable, governments still consider it a nice perk, rather than a must-have.
This will certainly shift over time.
Understanding -- and Surveilling -- Constituents The wide reach and instantaneous nature of social media makes it a rich source of real-time information for governments. It has become easier than ever for them to receive feedback via online polls, sentiment analysis and data generated by social media.
The huge amount of data that each citizen generates every day -- mostly via social media -- is a treasure trove of information.
One study estimates that the average American office worker generates 5, MB of data daily. Because of this, social media is a useful intelligence and surveillance tool.
Governments monitor keywords, hashtags, conversation flows and geolocation data. This type of monitoring can range from "acceptable" uses, such those employed in crisis or disaster management situations, and potentially more nefarious ones, as in crowd management.
During the protests in Ukraine, protesters received chilling text messages: Threat Analysis and Management Robert Hannigan, the UK's Director of Government Communications Headquarters, described social media as "the command-and-control networks of choice for terrorists," highlighting a common view government officials hold about the dangers of social media.
The same characteristics that make social media attractive to criminals and terrorist organizations also make it a useful tool for governments as a source of threat analysis and management, much to the concern of privacy advocates.
Law enforcement agencies now use social media as a type of open-source intelligence gathering, compiling background checks, criminal records if any and credit reports to create real-time threat profiles of individuals in predictive policing.
In addition, it is also increasingly the site of "information warfare. Rather than waiting for journalists to cover the story in a way that was potentially less sympathetic than desired, the government -- or in this case the military -- took to social media to ensure that they shared their desired narrative, and also communicated directly with Hamas fighters.
Direct Diplomacy Social media can be used as a tool of direct communication between governments and foreign organizations, civil society and even citizens of other states.
This falls under the category of public diplomacy. Notable examples include the U. Embassy-Beijing's account on Sina Weibo in China, one of the largest and most popular social networks in that country, which publishes a daily report on air quality in Beijing; the Sweden Twitter account, which gives control of the handle to a different Swedish citizen each week, painting an alternative and more "genuine" picture of Sweden than official channels normally allow; or the banter and bickering between ISAF, the official account of the International Security Assistance Forces in Afghanistan and the Taliban.Hamas is a Palestinian terrorist organization which mainly consists of Islamic paramilitary forces.
The name Hamas, means Islamic Resistance Movement. This Palestinian Islamic group was formed way back in as a result of the Israeli taking up most of the West Bank or Gaza strip. The militant. This is a sample essay on the history of ISIS and its impact on the US and it covers how the group may think, and their how they got to where they are/5(9).
A number of Americans and U.S.-based charities have been accused of funneling money to Hamas. It is estimated that Saudi Arabia continues to channel $12 - $14 million to .
August THE HAMAS - BACKGROUND TALKING POINTS 1. The HAMAS - like its parent organization - the "Muslim Brotherhood" aims to create a religious-civic infrastructure in the following areas: aid to the poor, education, health, society and religion. Hamas is an Islamic resistance movement formed in to fight for Palestinian occupied land of Gaza strip, West bank and east Jerusalem.
However, its initial creation was to destroy Israel and form a Palestinian Islamic state. The United States & Political Islamism - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free.
Jan 20, · Social media is changing "business as usual" for governments, opening up democratic processes, delivering services both to understand and surveil . Hamas: Background, platform, and U.S. engagement Hamas is the leading body of the democratically elected government of Palestine. The name is short for “Harakat alMuqawima alIslamiya,” which translates from the Arabic to “Islamic Resistance Movement (Abu Amr ).”. A number of Americans and U.S.-based charities have been accused of funneling money to Hamas. It is estimated that Saudi Arabia continues to channel $12 - $14 million to .
Hamas Background and Issues for Congress. Hamas and Its Positions Towards Israel. internationally supported, are of great relevance, and President Obama’s personal engagement is extremely vital as regards suggesting.